revolt of the comuneros colombia

Torrelobatón was a stronghold halfway between Tordesillas and Medina de Rioseco, and was very close to Valladolid. The Revolt of the Commoners (Comuneros) was over. [24], The situation moved closer to armed conflict on June 10. In the Revolt of the Comuneros in Paraguay, the rebels did not take the name willingly; it was only meant to disparage them as traitors. At its height, the rebels controlled the heart of Castile, ruling the cities of Valladolid, Tordesillas, and Toledo. Brian R. Hamnett, (1980). Toledo was declared in mourning over the death of Juan de Padilla. [25], Faced with the situation in Segovia, Regent and Cardinal Adrian of Utrecht decided to use the royal artillery, located in nearby Medina del Campo, to take Segovia and defeat Padilla. The character of the revolution is a matter of historiographical debate. [12] On May 20, he embarked for Germany, and left as regent of his Spanish possessions his former tutor, Adrian of Utrecht (better known as the future Pope Adrian VI). [5], The budgets of both Castile and Aragon had been in poor condition for some time. Ni un paso atrás, siempre adelante, y lo que fuere menester … sea!-Jose Antonio Galan. José Antonio Galán, one of the leaders of the revolt, continued on with a small number of rebels, including Jose Manuel Ortiz Manosalvas, but they were quickly defeated and executed, while other leaders of the rebellion were sentenced for life in prison for treason. Discontent had been brewing for years before the Revolt of the Comuneros. [18], In April 1520, Toledo was already unstable. For secular rebels, the punishment was death; clergy were to receive lighter penalties. The Marquis eventually abandoned the negotiations, and María Pacheco took on personal negotiations with Prior Zúñiga, the commander of the besieging forces. Murcia stayed with the rebel cause, but did not coordinate much with the Junta, and the rebellion there had a character closer to the nearby Revolt of the Brotherhoods in Valencia in Aragon. [41] This negated two of the most salient complaints of the rebels. The protests attacked the landed nobility as well, many of whom had illegally taken property during the reign of the regents and weak kings after Isabella's death. [16] It was the first time where the word comunidades (communities, communes) was used to signify the independent populace, and the name would stick to the councils later formed. Don Quixote references the rebellion in a conversation with Sancho, and Francisco de Quevedo uses the word "comunero" as a synonym for "rebel" in his works. A new election had to be held to choose the next emperor. [81], After the death of Padilla, Bishop Acuña lost popularity in favour of María Pacheco, Padilla's widow. [107] The autonomous community of Castile and León was created in response to public demand in 1983, and it recognized April 23 as an official holiday in 1986. [80], The first news of Villalar arrived in Toledo on April 26, but was largely ignored by the local Comunidad. [12] Taxes[a] had to be raised to cover the debt, but any new taxes had to be approved by the Cortes (Castile's own parliamentary body). They decried the short-term expenses that would be borne by Castile and questioned the role of Castile in this new political framework, given the possibility that the land would become a mere imperial province. These factors resulted in mistrust between the new king and the Castilian social elites, who could see the threat to their power and status. [61], The Royal Council's next move was the occupation of Ampudia in Palencia, a town loyal to the Count of Salvatierra. Many other towns in New Granada began to have the same occurrences with colonists livid about the conditions of the ruling government. [74], Once settled in the archdiocese of Toledo, Acuña began to recruit any men he could find, enlisting soldiers from fifteen to sixty years old. “Recenze The People and the King: The Comunero Revolt in Colombia, 1781 by John Leddy Phelan". Juan Martín Díez, a nationalistic liberal military leader who had fought in the resistance against Napoleon, led an expedition to find and exhume the remains of the three leaders executed in 1521. On April 21, the remaining administrators were driven from the fortifications of the Alcázar of Toledo. Briefly, Becerril de Campos and Palacios de Meneses, invaded and occupied the Iberian part of Navarre, Military history of the Revolt of the Comuneros § Battle of Tordesillas, Military history of the Revolt of the Comuneros § Acuña's campaign, March–April, List of people associated with the Revolt of the Comuneros, Military history of the Revolt of the Comuneros, "Fuerzas políticas en el proceso autonómico de Castilla y León: 1975–1983", "20.000 personas celebran en Villalar la fiesta de Castilla y León", "Ley por la que se declara Fiesta de la Comunidad de Castilla y León el día 23 de abril", "Toledo celebra el XX Homenaje a los Comuneros", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Revolt_of_the_Comuneros&oldid=998381499, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. [93] In that sense, the revolt could be considered successful. The comuneros of Burgos had to surrender, and this was the last rebellion to be seen in Castile. The royal army took advantage of the blunder, marching by night on December 4 and occupying Tordesillas the next day. Thus, in late March 1520, Charles convened the Cortes in Santiago de Compostela. Many cities, while not quite in outright revolt, stopped sending taxes to the Royal Council and began to self-govern. 36 (3): 415–416. Girón was one of the most powerful nobles who supported the comuneros; his rebellion is thought to originate from Charles' refusal to grant Girón the prestigious Duchy of Medina-Sidonia a year prior to the war. The establishment of the Comunidad of Valladolid caused the most important core of the Iberian plateau to declare for the rebels, upending the stability of the government. It was here that the revolt of the Comuneros of 1781 began against the oppression of Spanish rule. Rodrigo Ronquillo had been sent to Segovia by the Royal Council to investigate the recent murder of Segovia's legislator, but Segovia refused him entry. Royal soldiers filled the city and the administrator ordered Pacheco's execution. Some were long-standing, related to the viceroyalty in New Granada in 1717. Zúñiga was a prior in the Knights of St. John, who maintained a base in Castile at the time. comuneros kōmo͞onā´rōs , in Spain and Spanish America, citizens of a city or cities when organized to defend their rights against arbitrary encroachment of government. [112] Similarly, each February 3 since 1988 has been celebrated by the Castilian nationalist party Tierra Comunera in Toledo. assume the role of HRE leaving his tutor Adrian of Utrecht in charge as his regent, which was a violation of the agreement he signed when he was said to become King, this seems to have triggered the comuneros revolt. Heavy rain slowed Padilla's infantry more than the royalist cavalry and rendered the primitive firearms of the rebels' 1,000 arquebusiers nearly useless. [90] Pedro Girón received a pardon conditional on him going into exile to Oran in North Africa, where he served as a commander against the Moors. He prepared to head to Germany to take possession of his new domains in the Holy Roman Empire. Girón established his headquarters in Villabrágima, a town merely 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) from the royalist army. [89] The pardon gave amnesty to everyone involved in the revolt with the exception of 293 comuneros, a small figure given the huge number of rebels. He gave battle with the harrying royalist cavalry at the town of Villalar. The cities responded by sending their militias, captained by Juan López de Padilla and Juan de Zapata, who won in the first major confrontation between the forces of the king and the rebels. [92], Emperor Charles V would go on to rule one of the largest and most sprawling empires in European history. In February, Toledo kicked their Corregidor Real (something like a general manager) out and became an independent community. [8] Additionally, Ferdinand had invaded and occupied the Iberian part of Navarre in 1512, and forces were required to garrison it against Navarrese revolts and French armies. [54] Morale fell among the rebels, and much angry criticism was directed towards Pedro Girón for his maneuvering of the troops out of position and for his failure to attempt to retake Tordesillas or capture Medina de Rioseco. Soria and Guadalajara's representatives did not return, and Burgos had left earlier. Another factor considered by scholars is the major political reforms that the Spanish government forced on the colonies. He appeared at the Zocodover Plaza in the heart of the city on March 29, 1521, Good Friday. [2] Joanna's husband, Philip I, reigned briefly; he was replaced by Archbishop Cisneros as regent for a short time, and then by Isabella's widower Ferdinand who ruled from Aragon. The government had expelled the Jews in 1492 and the Muslims of Granada in 1502, moves that undercut lucrative trades and businesses. [7] [53], With Pedro Girón in command, the army of the comuneros advanced on Medina de Rioseco, following the orders of the Junta. The Revolt of the Comuneros (Spanish: Guerra de las Comunidades de Castilla, "War of the Communities of Castile") was an uprising by citizens of Castile against the rule of Charles I and his administration between 1520 and 1521. Local residents began to assemble and elect a body of officials known as el común, or a central committee “to lead the movement.” The rebels … However, these new developments lead to a dramatic drop in support for the comuneros from aristocrats, who were frightened by the more radical elements of the revolution.[38]. The defenders did secure an agreement to spare half of the goods inside the castle, thus avoiding further looting. [38] This uprising was followed by others of a similar anti-feudal nature. However, Charles understood that noble encroachment of power had helped cause the revolt, and embarked upon a new reform program. Zúñiga drove the rebel forces off, and then launched a counterattack of his own between Lillo and El Romeral, inflicting a crushing defeat on Acuña. The revolt occurred in the wake of political instability in the Crown of Castile after the death of Queen Isabella I in 1504. The order came on April 15; one day later, as the councilors prepared to leave, a large crowd opposed to the departure rioted and drove out the royal administrators instead. At the beginning of 1521, the comuneros prepared for an all-out war, despite disagreements within the movement. The influence of the revolt led to similar uprisings, with a similar outcome, as far north as Mérida and Timotes, now in Venezuela but at the time under jurisdiction of the Viceroyalty of New Granada.[6]. The men behind these people where called the Comuneros (both because they belonged to the lower Spanish classes and were therefore "common" and also because they created "communities" regardless of the pre-existing borders). Spain would provide the bulk of the Habsburgs' armies and financial resources over this period. The army of the comuneros fell apart. The Comuneros and Their Weapons In the year 1920, the month after the Cortes of Coruña, in Segovia, several members of the comuneros took the city and assassinated the representative of the Cortes. She would remain there for thirty-five years, the rest of her life. In 1516, Ferdinand died. [14], Charles had already stressed the treasury to its limit with his extravagant Flemish court, and over 1 million florins were spent in bribes for the election. Unable to besiege a city of 30,000 with only a small force, Ronquillo instead set out to blockade foodstuffs and other supplies from entering Segovia. [76] Padilla hoped to reach the relative safety of Toro and the heights of Vega de Valdetronco, but his infantry was too slow. 1782: Jose Antonio Galan, for the Revolt of the Comuneros. [14] Charles I won the election, becoming Emperor Charles V and cementing the power of the House of Habsburg. In late November 1520, both armies took positions between Medina de Rioseco and Tordesillas, and a confrontation was inevitable. [51][71], Acuña departed for Toledo in February with a small force under his command. The Junta reconvened on December 15, but with only eleven cities represented, down from a height of fourteen. Comunero Revolt (New Granada), large-scale rebellion (March-October 1781) against colonial authority in what is now northeastern Colombia. Oaths of self-defense were taken by all the cities represented over the week, finishing by September 30. The Revolt of the Comuneros was a popular uprising in the Viceroyalty of New Granada (now Colombia and parts of Venezuela) against the Spanish authorities from March through October 1781. The rebels now set themselves completely against the manorial system. These uprisings preceded the fight for liberation against Spanish colonialism that took place in the 19th century. [105], General Franco's government from 1939 to 1975 also encouraged an unfavorable interpretation of the comuneros. The rebellion had been struck a crippling blow. In a review of John Leddy Phelan's book on the Comunero revolt,[8] Hamnett states that the revolt was started, not with the goal of an independence movement, political freedom and self-government, but only with the hope of reversing the reforms. There is a debate among historians over what the main factor was, but what is clear is that the need for economic and political reform and the idea of self-government were contributors. [27] Fonseca had to withdraw his troops, and the event was a public relations disaster for the government. The revolt was in reaction to the increase in taxation to raise funds for defense of the region against the British, a rise in the price of tobacco and brandy, which were part of the late eighteenth-century Bourbon reforms. Most important was the appointment of two new Castilian co-regents: the Constable of Castile, Íñigo Fernández, and the Admiral of Castile, Fadrique Enríquez. [28] The royal army, with many of its soldiers unpaid for months, started to disintegrate. A brief rivalry emerged between the two, but it was resolved after mutual attempts at reconciliation. Many causes contributed to the revolt of 1781. The Royal Council granted a number of significant concessions to Burgos in exchange for them leaving the Junta. The Revolt of the Comuneros was an uprising by the inhabitants of the Viceroyalty of New Granada (now Colombia and parts of Venezuela) against the Spanish authorities in 1781. Of the 293, 23 were executed, 20 died in prison, 50 purchased amnesty, and 100 were pardoned later. Designate a Castilian to lead the kingdom in the absence of the king. [80] The fall of Toledo seemed only to be a matter of time. [77], The three most important leaders of the rebellion were captured: Juan López de Padilla, Juan Bravo, and Francisco Maldonado. [102] Another Revolt of the Comuneros in New Granada (modern Colombia) was similarly unrelated to the original except in name. In Valladolid, the Junta proposed to Antonio de Acuña that he submit himself as a candidate for the seat. However, once the rebels disbanded, the Spanish government officials signed a document that discarded the agreement on the basis that it was forced upon them. [45] The Admiral of Castile continued his campaign to try to convince the comuneros to return to the royal government and thereby avoid a violent suppression. Still, only four cities sent representatives at first: Toledo, Segovia, Salamanca, and Toro. [23] Ideas began to circulate of replacing the king; Toledo's leaders floated the possibility of turning the cities of Castile into independent free cities, similar to Genoa and other Italian republics. Segovia had some of the earliest and most violent incidents; on May 30, a mob of woolworkers murdered two administrators and the city's legislator who had voted in favor. [35] A close correlation can be drawn between poor economic fortunes over the previous twenty years and the rebellion; central Castile suffered from agricultural failure and other setbacks under the Royal Council, while Andalusia was relatively prosperous with its maritime trade. [24] A letter from Cardinal Adrian on August 25 warned Charles of the severity of the situation: Your Highness is making a great error if you think that you will be able to collect and make use of this tax; there is no one in the Kingdom, not in Seville or Valladolid or any other city who will ever pay anything of it; all the grandees and members of the council are amazed that Your Highness has scheduled payments from these funds. [97] Charles also discouraged his officials from using overly coercive methods, after seeing his heavy-handed treatment of the Cortes of Corunna backfire. The small rebel garrison was overwhelmed. [50][51], On the royalist side, the nobles could not agree on what tactics to use. [3] Prior to the 1781 revolt, residents in New Granada had protested, at times violently, crown policy implementation there between 1740 and 1779. [62], After the recent setbacks suffered by the comuneros, Padilla realized that they needed a victory to raise morale. These political changes were also part of the Bourbon Reforms. Those who favored war were divided between two tactics: occupy Simancas and Torrelobatón, a less ambitious proposal defended by Pedro Laso de la Vega; or lay siege to Burgos, a tactic favored by Padilla. He first attacked and pillaged Villaseca de la Sagra, then faced Zúñiga again in an inconclusive battle near the Tagus river in Illescas. Thus, on October 31 the comuneros left the Alcázar of Toledo and new officials were appointed to run the city. Both Pacheco and Bishop Acuña were among the 293 excluded from the pardon. [37], The growing success of the comuneros emboldened people to accuse members of the old government of complicity with royal abuses. Díez praised the comuneros on behalf of the liberal government in power at the time, likely the first positive governmental recognition for their cause. [103], At the beginning of the 19th century, the image of the comuneros began to be rehabilitated by scholars such as Manuel Quintana as precursors of freedom and martyrs against absolutism. [66] Meanwhile, the comuneros reinforced their troops at Torrelobatón, which was far less secure than the comuneros preferred. She requested the intervention of her uncle, the respected Marquis of Villena, to negotiate with the Royal Council, hoping he would be able to obtain better concessions. Fonseca ordered the setting of a fire to distract the resistance, but it grew out of control. [55], Following the loss of Tordesillas, the comuneros regrouped in Valladolid. The city of Barinas defeated the Comuneros of the Venezuelan Andes (1781), a fact that led to King Carlos IV granting it in 1790 the coat of arms that today retains the state capital, along with the motto "very noble and very loyal". [44], Following this incident, the Royal Council hoped that other cities would imitate Burgos and leave the comuneros peacefully. He returned to Valladolid in early 1521, then came back to Dueñas on January 10 to begin a major offensive against the nobles of Tierra de Campos. On this date in 1782, Comunero rebel Jose Antonio Galan was executed in Bogota, New Grenada (present-day Colombia). [27][28] Uprisings throughout Castile occurred, even in cities that previously had been neutral such as Castile's capital, Valladolid. Venezuela--History--Insurrection of the Comuneros, 1781; Closely Matching Concepts from Other Schemes. Charles placed Castilians in high governmental positions in both Castile and the Empire at large, and generally left the administration of Castile in Castilian hands. [105] Manuel Danvila, a conservative government minister, published the six-volume Historia critica y documentada de las Comunidades de Castilla from 1897 to 1900, one of the most important works of scholarship on the revolt. Acuña left Toledo to travel to Navarre, but he was recognized and caught. [36] In Extremadura to the southwest, the city of Plasencia joined the Comunidades, but this was undermined by the close proximity of other royalist cities such as Ciudad Rodrigo and Cáceres. Granada’s Revolt of the Comuneros (citizens organized to defend their rights against the arbitrary encroachment of government), an historic uprising that foreshadowed the revolution. The remaining heir was Ferdinand and Isabella's grandson Charles, who became King Charles I of both Castile and Aragon in coregency with his mother Joanna. This article uses the term "tax" to encompass a variety of revenue-raising methods the government used. Historians such as José Antonio Maravall and Joseph Pérez portray the developing revolt as alliances of different social coalitions around shifting economic interests, with the "industrial bourgeoisie" of artisans and woolworkers combining with the intellectuals and the low nobility against the aristocrats and the merchants. This article incorporates text translated from the, This page was last edited on 5 January 2021, at 03:32. [49], Seizure of Tordesillas marked a serious defeat for the comuneros, who lost Queen Joanna and with her their claim to legitimacy. However, he also provoked former comuneros. The Revolt of the Comuneros (Spanish: Guerra de las Comunidades de Castilla, "War of the Communities of Castile") was an uprising by citizens of Castile against the rule of Charles I and his administration between 1520 and 1521. Juan López de Padilla considered withdrawing to Toro to seek reinforcements in early April, but wavered. [47], During October and November 1520, both sides accepted that a military conclusion would soon be necessary and actively devoted themselves to fundraising, recruiting soldiers, and training their troops. [16] The situation erupted when the royal government summoned the most radical of the city councilors away from the city, intending to send back more easily controllable replacements on a royal salary. Briceño, Manuel. Again, the royalists had a strong advantage in cavalry, with their army consisting of 6,000 infantry and 2,400 cavalry against Padilla's 7,000 infantry and 400 cavalry. [5] [86], Charles V returned to Spain on July 16, 1522. Add comment February 1st, 2018 Headsman. Ampudia was recovered by the rebels the next day, January 16. [23] Competing proposals suggested keeping the monarchy, but dethroning Charles. On February 25, the comuneros entered the town and subjected it to a massive looting spree as a reward to the troops. [20], Following Charles' departure to Germany, the riots multiplied in the cities of central Castile, especially after the arrival of legislators who had voted "yes" to the taxes Charles had asked for. [47], Gradually, both the city of Toledo and its leader Juan López de Padilla lost influence within the Junta, though Padilla retained popularity and prestige among the commoners. There were few attempts at rebellion elsewhere, such as in Galicia to the northwest or in Andalusia to the south. Only the city of Toledo kept alive the rebellion led by María Pacheco, until its surrender in October 1521. Cancel the taxes voted in the Cortes of Corunna. Similarly, the edict also declared that those who supported the Comunidades were traitors, disloyal, rebels, and infidels. Soon, a series of anti-government riots broke out in the cities, and local city councils (Comunidades) took power. Many other towns in New Granada began to have the same occurrences with colonists livid about the conditions of the ruling government. However, with this movement, the comuneros left the path to Tordesillas completely unprotected. Support from these urban elites was critical to Ferdinand and Isabella's centralization of power, and they acted as a counterweight to the landed aristocracy and the clergy. Through Cardinal Adrian, he undertook new policy initiatives, such as canceling the taxes granted in the Cortes of Corunna. [31] The only invited cities that failed to attend were the four Andalusian cities: Seville, Granada, Cordova, and Jaén. Get this from a library! He decided to take Torrelobatón and its castle. Don Quixote references the rebellion in a conversation with Sancho, and Francisco de Quevedo uses the word "comunero" as a synonym for "rebel" in his works. [48] The royal government, which had lost much of its revenue due to the revolt, sought loans from Portugal and from conservative Castilian bankers, who saw reassuring signs in the switch of the allegiance of Burgos. [58], In the far north of Castile, the rebel army began a series of operations conducted by Antonio de Acuña, bishop of Zamora. They proposed that he be replaced by either his mother Queen Joanna or his Castilian-born brother Ferdinand. The Revolt of the Comuneros (Spanish: Revolución Comunera) was a series of uprisings by settlers in Paraguay in the Viceroyalty of Peru against the Spanish authorities from 1721–1725 and 1730–1735. There were an estimated 500–1,000 rebel casualties and many desertions. Comunero Rebellion, also called Comunero Revolt or Commoners’ Rebellion, Spanish Insurrección de los Comuneros, popular uprising in 1780–81 in the Viceroyalty of New Granada. [35] Comunidades in the south were set up in Jaén, Úbeda, and Baeza, unique in Andalusia, but with time they were drawn back into the royalists. On April 23, 1521, after nearly a year of rebellion, the reorganized supporters of the emperor struck a crippling blow to the comuneros at the Battle of Villalar. Hamnett, Brian R. (1980). [59][62], After abandoning the siege of Burgos due to the failure of its revolt, Padilla decided to return to Valladolid, while Acuña opted to resume his skirmishing and harassment of noble properties around Tierra de Campos. [105] The first major commemorative event came in 1821, the third centenary of the Battle of Villalar. 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In his absence resolution, while not quite in outright revolt, fresh in the absence of the comuneros in! Of clerics soon circulated a statement in protest of the second phase of the twenty-year-old William de Croÿ Archbishop... Flanders, the comuneros now began to agitate, denouncing the opulence of royalist! On to rule one of the Alcázar of Toledo, Madrid revolt of the comuneros colombia and from there raids. Knights of St. John, who maintained a base in Castile at the Zocodover Plaza in the of. 62 ], the Cortes of Corunna the country then threatened to hang all of the goods the... Won the election, becoming Emperor Charles V would go on to rule one of the proposed! Complicity with royal abuses from this date in 1782, Comunero rebel Jose Antonio Galan, the... Tax revolt of the comuneros colombia to encompass a variety of revenue-raising methods the government sign pact!

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